BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATION
Paper for the Scientific Workshop “EMF-Scientific and legal Issues, Theory
and Evidence of EMF Biological and Health Effects” in Catania, Sicily,
Italy, September 13-14, 2002, organized by the Italian National Institute
for Prevention and Work Safety.
BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATION
Department of Bioengineering
University of Washington
There is no question that radiofrequency radiation (RFR) affects functions
in cells and living organisms. One important determinant of effects is the
amount of energy deposited in or absorbed by the exposed object. In
addition, there are some indications that biological effects may also
depend on how the energy is deposited. Different propagation
characteristics such as ‘modulation,’ or different waveforms and shapes
have different effects on a living system. Different biological effects
result depending on the intensity, waveform, and duration of the
Biological effects can occur after exposure to high intensity of RFR that
can cause general or local heating. However, effects have also been
reported in cells and animals after exposures to very low-intensity RFR
that apparently cannot cause a significant change in temperature. The
following is a list of these studies. (Some studies only give the power
density, in mW/cm2, of the radiation, whereas others give the specific
absorption rate (SAR), in W/kg, in the exposed objects).
(1) Balode (1996)- blood cells from cows from a farm close and in front of
a radar showed significantly higher level of severe genetic damage.
(2) Boscol et al. (2001)- RFR from radio transmission stations (0.005
mW/cm2) affects immunological system in women.
(3) Chiang et al. (1989)- people lived and worked near radio antennae and
radar installations showed deficits in psychological and short-term memory
(4) De Pomerai et al. (2000, 2002) reported an increase in a molecular
stress response in cells after exposure to a RFR at a SAR of 0.001 W/kg.
This stress response is a basic biological process that is present in
almost all animals - including humans.
(5) D'Inzeo et al. (1988)- very low intensity RFR (0.0020.004 mW/cm2)
affects the operation of acetylcholine-related ion-channels in cells.
channels play important roles in physiological and behavioral functions.
(6) Dolk et al. (1997)- a significant increase in adult leukemias was
in residence who lived near the Sutton Coldfield television and
frequency-modulation (FM) radio transmitter in England.
(7) Dutta et al. (1989) reported an increase in calcium efflux in cells
after exposure to RFR at 0.005 W/kg. Calcium is an important component of
normal cellular functions.
(8) Fesenko et al. (1999) reported a change in immunological functions in
mice after exposure to RFR at a power density of 0.001 mW/cm2.
(9) Hjollund et al. (1997)- sperm counts of Danish military personnel, who
operated mobile ground-to-air missile units that use several RFR emitting
radar systems (maximal mean exposure 0.01 mW/cm2), were significantly low
compared to references.
(10) Hocking et al. (1996)- an association was found between increased
childhood leukemia incidence and mortality and proximity to TV towers.
(11) Ivaschuk et al. (1999)- short-term exposure to cellular phone RFR of
very low SAR (26 mW/kg) affected a gene related to cancer.
(12) Kolodynski and Kolodynska (1996)- school Children lived in front of a
radio station had less developed memory and attention, their reaction time
was slower, and their neuromuscular apparatus endurance was decreased.
(13) Kwee et al. (2001)- 20 minutes of cell phone RFR exposure at 0.0021
W/kg increased stress protein in human cells.
(14) Lebedeva et al. (2000)- brain wave activation was observed in human
subjects exposed to cellular phone RFR at 0.06 mW/cm2.
(15) Magras and Xenos (1999) reported a decrease in reproductive function
in mice exposed to RFR at power densities of 0.000168 - 0.001053 mW/cm2.
(16) Mann et al. (1998)- a transient increase in blood cortisol was
observed in human subjects exposed to cellular phone RFR at 0.02 mW/cm2.
Cortisol is a hormone involved in stress reaction.
(17) Michelozzi et al. (1998)- leukemia mortality within 3.5 km (5,863
inhabitants) near a high power radio-transmitter in a peripheral area of
Rome was higher than expected.
(18) Michelozzi et al. (2002)- childhood leukemia higher at a distance up
to 6 km from a radio station.
(19) Navakatikian and Tomashevskaya (1994)- RFR at low intensities (0.01 -
0.1 mW/cm2; 0.0027- 0.027 W/kg) induced behavioral and endocrine changes
rats. Decreases in blood concentrations of testosterone and insulin were
(20) Novoselova et al. (1999)-low intensity RFR (0.001 mW/cm2) affects
functions of the immune system.
(21) Persson et al. (1997) reported an increase in the permeability of the
blood-brain barrier in mice exposed to RFR at 0.0004 - 0.008 W/kg. The
blood-brain barrier envelops the brain and protects it from toxic
(22) Phillips et al. (1998) reported DNA damage in cells exposed to RFR at
SAR of 0.0024 - 0.024 W/kg.
(23) Santini et al. (2002)- increase in complaint frequencies for
tiredness, headache, sleep disturbance, discomfort, irritability,
depression, loss of memory, dizziness, libido decrease, in people who
within 300 m of mobile phone base stations.
(24) Schwartz et al. (1990)- calcium movement in the heart affected by RFR
at SAR of 0.00015 W/kg. Calcium is important in muscle contraction.
in calcium can affect heart functions.
(25) Somosy et al. (1991)- RFR at 0.024 W/kg caused molecular and
structural changes in cells of mouse embryos.
(26) Stagg et al. (1997)- glioma cells exposed to cellular phone RFR at
0.0059 W/kg showed significant increases in thymidine incorporation, which
may be an indication f an increase in cell division.
(27) Stark et al. (1997)- a two- to seven-fold increase of salivary
melatonin concentration was observed in dairy cattle exposed to RFR from a
radio transmitter antenna.
(28) Tattersall et al. (2001)- low-intensity RFR (0.0016 - 0.0044 W/kg)
modulate the function of a part of the brain called the hippocampus, in
absence of gross thermal effects. The changes in excitability may be
consistent with reported behavioral effects of RFR, since the hippocampus
is involved in learning and memory.
(29) Vangelova et al. (2002)- operators of satellite station exposed to
dose (0.1127 J/kg) of RFR over a 24-hr shift showed an increased excretion
of stress hormones.
(30) Velizarov et al. (1999) showed a decrease in cell proliferation
(division) after exposure to RFR of 0. 000021 - 0.0021 W/kg.
(31) Veyret et al. (1991)- low intensity RFR at SAR of 0.015 W/kg affects
functions of the immune system.
(32) Wolke et al. (1996)- RFR at 0.001W/kg affects calcium concentration
heart muscle cells of guinea pigs.
Some of these effects occurred at surprisingly low intensities or SARs. It
is apparent that low-intensity RFR is not biologically inert. When using a
cell phone, because of the closeness of the antenna, a large amount of
energy can be deposited in the head of a user. Relatively high SARs have
been reported in various studies: Dimbylow and Mann (1994)- 2.3 and 4.8
W/kg/gm tissue per W output at 900 MHz and 1.8 GHz; Anderson and Joyner
(1995)- 0.12-0.83 W/kg; Gandhi et al. (1999)- 0.13-5.41 W/kg/gm tissue at
0.6 W output (835 and 1900 MHz); and Van de Kamer and Lagendijk (2002)-
1.72-2.55 W/kg /gm tissue at 0.25 W output (915 MHz).
The majority of the biological studies on RFR have been conducted with
short-term exposures, i.e. a few minutes to several hours. Little is known
about the effects of long-term exposure. What are the effects of long-term
exposure? Does long-term exposure produce different effects from
exposure? Do effects accumulate over time?
Various biological outcomes have been reported after long-term/repeated
exposure to RFR:
(1) Effects were observed after prolonged, repeated exposure but not after
short-term exposure [e.g., Baranski, 1972; Takashima et al., 1979].
(2) Effects that were observed after short-term exposure, disappeared
prolonged, repeated exposure (habituation) [e.g., Johnson et al., 1983;
et al., 1987, 1992].
(3) Different effects were observed after different durations of exposure
[e.g., Di Carlo et al., 2002; Dumanski and Shandala, 1974; Lai et al.,
(4) There is also indication that an animal becomes more sensitive to the
radiation after long-term exposure [e.g., see de Lorge and Ezell, 1980; de
Lorge 1984, D’Andrea et al. 1986a,b; DeWitt et al., 1987]. The conclusion
from a series of experiments on ‘disruption of behavior’ in animals after
one-time exposure to RFR is that ‘disruption of behavior occurred when an
animal was exposed at a SAR of approximately 4 W/kg, and disruption
occurred after 30-60 minutes of exposure’. However after long-term
(7 hr/day, 7 days/week for 90 days14 weeks), the threshold for behavioral
and physiological effects of RFR was found to occur between 0.14 W/kg and
0.7 W/kg. Thus, RFR can produce an effect at much lower intensities after
an animal is chronically exposed. This can have very significant
implications for people exposed to RFR in the environment. The conclusion
from this body of work is that effects of long-term exposure can be quite
different from those of short-term exposure.
There is also some evidence that effects of RFR accumulate over time. Here
are some examples: Phillips et al. (1998) reported DNA damage in cells
after 24 hours of exposure to low intensity RFR. DNA damage can lead to
gene mutation, which accumulates over time. Magras and Xenos (1999)
reported that mice exposed to low-intensity RFR became less reproductive.
After five generations of exposure, the mice were not able to produce
offspring. This shows that the effect of RFR can pass from one generation
to another. Persson et al. (1997) reported an increase in permeability of
the blood-brain barrier in mice when the energy deposited in the body
exceeded 1.5 J/kg (joule per kilogram) -- a measurement of the total
of energy deposited. This suggests that a short-term/high intensity
exposure can produce the same effect as a long-term/low intensity
This is another indication that RFR effects can accumulate over time.
In many RFR exposure guidelines, a limit of 0.4 W/kg is used based on the
experimental results that ‘disruption of behavior’ in animals occurs at 4
W/kg. However, there are many studies that show biological effects at SARs
less than 4 W/kg after short-term exposure to RFR. For example, behavioral
effects have been observed at SARs less than 4 W/kg: D’Andrea et al
(1986a,b)- 0.14 to 0.7 W/kg; DeWitt et al. (1987)- 0.14 W/kg; Gage (1979)-
3 W/kg; King et al. (1971)- 2.4 W/kg; Lai et al. (1989)- 0.6 W/kg;
et al. (1977)- 2.3 W/kg; Navakatikian and Tomashevskaya (1994)- 0.027
Schrot et al. (1980)- 0.7 W/kg; Thomas et al. (1975)- 1.5 to 2.7 W/kg;
and Lai (2000)- 1.2 W/kg . There are also many reports of other biological
functions affected by RFR at a SAR less than 4 W/kg. Therefore, the
rationale of 4 W/kg should be reconsidered.
For decades, there have been questions about whether an effect of RFR is
thermal (i.e., a significant change in temperature) or non-thermal (i.e.,
no significant change in temperature). However, we actually don’t need to
know whether RFR effects are thermal or non-thermal to set exposure
guidelines for RFR exposure. Most of the studies on biological effects of
RFR carried out since the 1980’s were under ‘non-thermal’ conditions. In
studies using isolated cells, the ambient temperature during exposure was
generally well controlled. In most animal studies, the RFR intensity used
usually did not cause a significant increase in body temperature of the
animals exposed. There are several arguments for the existence of
non-thermal effects: (1) There are reports that RFRs of the same frequency
and intensity but with different modulations and waveforms produce
different effects [Arber and Lin, 1985; Baranski, 1972; Frey et al., 1975;
Oscar and Hawkins, 1977; Sanders et al., 1985]. (2) RFR triggers effects
different from an increase in temperature [de Pomerai et al., 2002;
et al., 1988; Seaman and Wachtel, 1978; Wachtel et al., 1975]. (3) Effects
are observed with RFR of very low intensities, when temperature increase
unlikely [e.g., de Pomerai et al., 2000].
Anderson, V., Joyner, K.H., 1995, Specific absorption rate levels measured
in a phantom head exposed to radio frequency transmissions from analog
hand-held mobile phones. Bioelectromagnetics 16:60-69.
ArberAdd to Gerard Hyland:
“How Exposure to GSM & TETRA Base-station Radiation can
Adversely Affect Humans” December 2002.
S.L., Lin, J.C., 1985, Microwave-induced changes in nerve cells: effects
of modulation and temperature. Bioelectromagnetics 6:257-270.
Balode, Z.,1996, Assessment of radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation
the micronucleus test in bovine peripheral erythrocytes. Sci Total Environ
Baranski, S., 1972, Histological and histochemical effects of microwave
irradiation on the central nervous system of rabbits and guinea pigs. Am J
Physiol Med 51:182-190.
Boscol, P., Di Sciascio, M.B., D'Ostilio, S., Del Signore, A., Reale, M.,
Conti, P., Bavazzano, P., Paganelli, R., Di Gioacchino, M., 2001, Effects
of electromagnetic fields produced by radiotelevision broadcasting
on the immune system of women. Sci Total Environ 273:1-10.
Chiang, H., Yao, G.D., Fang, Q.S., Wang, K.Q., Lu, D.Z., Zhou, Y.K., 1989,
Health effects of environmental electromagnetic fields. J. Bioelectricity
D'Andrea, J.A., DeWitt, J.R., Emmerson, R.Y., Bailey, C., Stensaas, S.,
Gandhi, O. P., 1986a, Intermittent exposure of rat to 2450-MHz microwaves
at 2.5 mW/cm2: behavioral and physiological effects. Bioelectromagnetics
D'Andrea, J.A., DeWitt, J.R., Gandhi, O. P., Stensaas, S., Lords, J.L.,
Nielson, H.C., 1986b, Behavioral and physiological effects of chronic
2450-MHz microwave irradiation of the rat at 0.5 mW/cm2.
de Lorge, J.O., 1984, Operant behavior and colonic temperature of Macaca
mulatta exposed to radiofrequency fields at and above resonant
de Lorge, J., Ezell, C.S., 1980, Observing-responses of rats exposed to
1.28- and 5.62-GHz microwaves. Bioelectromagnetics 1:183-198.
de Pomerai, D., Daniells, C., David, H., Allan, J., Duce, I., Mutwakil,
Thomas, D., Sewell, P., Tattersall, J., Jones, D., Candido, P., 2000,
Non-thermal heat-shock response to microwaves. Nature 405:417-418.
de Pomerai, D.I., Dawe, A., Djerbib, L., Allan, J., Brunt, G., Daniells,
C., 2002, Growth and maturation of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans
following exposure to weak microwave fields. Enzyme Microbial Tech
DeWitt, J.R., D’Andrea, J.A., Emmerson, R.Y., Gandhi, O.P., 1987,
Behavioral effects of chronic exposure to 0.5 mW/cm2 of 2450-MHz
microwaves. Bioelectromagnetics 8:149-157.
Di Carlo, A., White, N., Guo, F., Garrett, P., Litovitz, T., 2002, Chronic
electromagnetic field exposure decreases HSP70 levels and lowers
cytoprotection. J Cell. Biochem 84: 447-454.
Dimbylow, P.J., Mann, S.M., 1994, SAR calculations in an anatomically
realistic model of the head for mobile communication transceivers at 900
MHz and 1.8 GHz. Phys Med Biol 39:1537-1553.
D'Inzeo, G., Bernardi, P., Eusebi, F., Grass,i F., Tamburello, C., Zani,
B.M., 1988, Microwave effects on acetylcholine-induced channels in
chick myotubes. Bioelectromagnetics 9:363-372.
Dolk, H., Shaddick, G., Walls, P., Grundy, C., Thakra, B., Kleinschmidt,
I., Elliott, P., 1997, Cancer incidence near radio and television
transmitters in Great Britain. I. Sutton Coldfield transmitter. Am J
Dumansky, J.D., Shandala, M.G., 1974, The biologic action and hygienic
significance of electromagnetic fields of super high and ultra high
frequencies in densely populated areas, in: "Biologic Effects and Health
Hazard of Microwave Radiation: Proceedings of an International Symposium,"
P. Czerski, et al., eds., Polish Medical Publishers, Warsaw.
Dutta, S.K., Ghosh, B., Blackman, C.F., 1989, Radiofrequency
radiation-induced calcium ion efflux enhancement from human and other
neuroblastoma cells in culture. Bioelectromagnetics 10:197-202.
Fesenko, E.E., Makar, V.R., Novoselova, E.G., Sadovnikov, V.B., 1999,
Microwaves and cellular immunity. I. Effect of whole body microwave
irradiation on tumor necrosis factor production in mouse cells.
Bioelectrochem Bioenerg 49:29-35.
Frey, A.H., Feld, S.R., Frey, B., 1975, Neural function and behavior:
defining the relationship. Ann N Y Acad Sci 247:433-439.
Gandhi, O.P., Lazzi, G., Tinniswood, A., Yu, Q.S., 1999, Comparison of
numerical and experimental methods for determination of SAR and radiation
patterns of handheld wireless telephones. Bioelectromagnetics Suppl
Gage, M.I., 1979, Behavior in rats after exposure to various power
densities of 2450 MHz microwaves. Neurobehav Toxicol 1:137-143.
Hjollund, N.H., Bonde, J.P., Skotte, J., 1997, Semen analysis of personnel
operating military radar equipment. Reprod Toxicol 11:897.
Hocking, B., Gordon, I.R., Grain, H.L., Hatfield, G.E., 1996, Cancer
incidence and mortality and proximity to TV towers. Med J Aust
Ivaschuk O.I., Jones R.A., Ishida-Jones T., Haggren W., Adey W.R.,
J.L., 1997, Exposure of nerve growth factor-treated PC12 rat
pheochromocytoma cells to a modulated radiofrequency field at 836.55 MHz:
effects on c-jun and c-fos expression. Bioelectromagnetics 18:223-229.
Johnson, R.B., Spackman, D., Crowley, J., Thompson, D., Chou, C.K., Kunz,
L.L., Guy, A.W., 1983, Effects of long-term low-level radiofrequency
radiation exposure on rats, vol. 4, Open field behavior and
USAF SAM-TR83-42, Report of USAF School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks AFB,
San Antonio, TX.
King, N.W., Justesen, D.R., Clarke, R.L., 1971, Behavioral sensitivity to
microwave irradiation. Science 172:398-401.
Kolodynski A.A., Kolodynska V.V., 1996, Motor and psychological functions
of school children living in the area of the Skrunda Radio Location
in Latvia. Sci Total Environ 180:87-93.
Kwee,S.,Raskmark, P., Velizarov, P., 2001, Changes in cellular proteins
to environmental non-ionizing radiation. I. Heat-shock proteins. Electro-
and Magnetobiology 20: 141-152.
Lai, H., Horita, A., Chou, C.K., Guy, A.W., 1987, Effects of low-level
microwave irradiation on hippocampal and frontal cortical choline uptake
are classically conditionable. Pharmac Biochem Behav 27:635-639.
Lai, H., Carino, M.A., Guy, A.W., 1989, Low-level microwave irradiation
central cholinergic systems. Pharmac Biochem Behav 33:131-138.
Lai, H., Carino, M.A., Horita, A., Guy, A.W., 1992, Single vs repeated
microwave exposure: effects on benzodiazepine receptors in the brain of
rat. Bioelectromagnetics 13:57-66.
Lai, H., Carino, M.A., Guy, A.W., 1989, Low-level microwave irradiation
central cholinergic systems. Pharmac Biochem Behav 33:131-138.
Lebedeva, N.N., Sulimov, A.V., Sulimova, O.P., Kotrovskaya, T.I., Gailus,
T., 2000, Cellular phone electromagnetic field effects on bioelectric
activity of human brain. Crit Rev Biomed Eng 28:323-337.
Magras, I.N., Xenos, T.D., 1997, RF radiation-induced changes in the
prenatal development of mice. Bioelectromagnetics 18:455-461.
Mann, K., Wagner, P., Brunn, G., Hassan, F., Hiemke, C., Roschke, J.,
Effects of pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields on the
neuroendocrine system. Neuroendocrinology 67:139-144.
Michelozzi, P., Ancona, C., Fusco, D., Forastiere, F., Perucci, C.A.,
Risk of leukemia and residence near a radio transmitter in Italy.
Epidemiology 9 (Suppl) 354p.
Michelozzi, P., Capon, A., Kirchmayer, U., Forastiere, F., Biggeri, A.,
Barca, A., Perucci, C.A., 2002, Adult and childhood leukemia near a
high-power radio station in Rome, Italy. Am J Epidemiol 155:1096-1103.
Mitchell, D.S., Switzer, W.G., Bronaugh, E.L., 1977, Hyperactivity and
disruption of operant behavior in rats after multiple exposure to
radiation. Radio Sci 12:263-271.
Navakatikian, M.A., Tomashevskaya, L.A., 1994, Phasic behavioral and
endocrine effects of microwaves of nonthermal intensity. In “Biological
Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields, Volume 1," D.O. Carpenter (ed)
Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp.333-342.
Novoselova, E.G., Fesenko, E.E., Makar, V.R., Sadovnikov, V.B., 1999,
Microwaves and cellular immunity. II. Immunostimulating effects of
microwaves and naturally occurring antioxidant nutrients. Bioelectrochem
Oscar, K.J., Hawkins, T.D., 1977, Microwave alteration of the blood-brain
barrier system of rats. Brain Res 126:281-293.
Persson, B.R.R., Salford, L.G., Brun, A., 1997, Blood-brain barrier
permeability in rats exposed to electromagnetic fields used in wireless
communication. Wireless Network 3:455-461.
Phillips, J.L., Ivaschuk, O., Ishida-Jones, T., Jones, R.A.,
Campbell-Beachler, M., Haggren, W., 1998, DNA damage in Molt-4 T-
lymphoblastoid cells exposed to cellular telephone radiofrequency fields
vitro. Bioelectrochem Bioenerg 45:103-110.
Santini, R., Santini, P., Danze, J.M., Le Ruz, P., Seigne, M., 2002, Study
of the health of people living in the vicinity of mobile phone base
stations: I. Influence of distance and sex. Pathol Biol (Paris)
Sanders, A.P., Joines, W.T., Allis, J.W., 1985, Effect of continuous-wave,
pulsed, and sinusoidal-amplitude-modulated microwaves on brain energy
metabolism. Bioelectromagnetics 6:89-97.
Schrot, J., Thomas, J.R., Banvard, R.A., 1980, Modification of the
acquisition of response sequences in rats by low-level microwave exposure.
Schwartz, J.L., House, D.E., Mealing, G.A., 1990, Exposure of frog hearts
to CW or amplitude-modulated VHF fields: selective efflux of calcium ions
at 16 Hz. Bioelectromagnetics 11:349-358.
Seaman, R.L., Wachtel, H., 1978, Slow and rapid responses to CW and pulsed
microwave radiation by individual Aplysia pacemakers. J Microwave Power
Somosy, Z., Thuroczy, G., Kubasova, T., Kovacs, J., Szabo, L.D., 1991,
Effects of modulated and continuous microwave irradiation on the
and cell surface negative charge of 3T3 fibroblasts. Scanning Microsc
Stagg, R.B., Thomas, W.J., Jones, R.A., Adey, W.R., 1997, DNA synthesis
cell proliferation in C6 glioma and primary glial cells exposed to a
MHz modulated radiofrequency field. Bioelectromagnetics 18:230-236.
Stark, K.D., Krebs, T., Altpeter, E., Manz, B., Griot, C., Abelin, T.,
1997, Absence of chronic effect of exposure to short-wave radio broadcast
signal on salivary melatonin concentrations in dairy cattle. J Pineal Res
Takashima, S., Onaral, B., Schwan, H.P., 1979, Effects of modulated RF
energy on the EEG of mammalian brain. Rad Environ Biophys 16:15-27.
Tattersall, J.E., Scott, I.R., Wood, S.J., Nettell, J.J., Bevir, M.K.,
Wang, Z., Somasiri, N.P., Chen, X., 2001, Effects of low intensity
radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on electrical activity in rat
hippocampal slices. Brain Res 904:43-53.
Thomas, J.R., Finch, E.D., Fulk, D.W., Burch, L.S., 1975, Effects of low
level microwave radiation on behavioral baselines. Ann NY Acad Sci
Van de Kamer, J.B., Lagendijk, J.J.W., 2002, Computation of
SAR distributions in a head due to a radiating dipole antenna representing
a hand-held mobile phone. Phys Med Biol 47:1827-1835.
Vangelova, K., Israel, M., Mihaylov, S., 2002, The effect of low level
radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on the excretion rates of stress
hormones in operators during 24-hour shifts. Cent Eur J Public Health
Velizarov, S., Raskmark, P., Kwee, S., 1999, The effects of radiofrequency
fields on cell proliferation are non-thermal. Bioelectrochem Bioenerg
Veyret, B., Bouthet, C., Deschaux, P., de Seze, R., Geffard, M.,
Joussot-Dubien, J., le Diraison, M., Moreau, J.M., Caristan, A., 1991,
Antibody responses of mice exposed to low-power microwaves under combined,
pulse-and-amplitude modulation. Bioelectromagnetics 12:47-56.
Wachtel, H., Seaman, R., Joines, W., 1975, Effects of low-intensity
microwaves on isolated neurons. Ann NY Acad Sci 247:46-62.
Wang, B.M., Lai, H., 2000, Acute exposure to pulsed 2450-MHz microwaves
affects water-maze performance of rats. Bioelectromagnetics 21:52-56.
Wolke, S., Neibig, U., Elsner, R., Gollnick, F., Meyer, R., 1996, Calcium
homeostasis of isolated heart muscle cells exposed to pulsed
electromagnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics 17:144-153.